Antihypertensive drugs

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    Hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg

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Mechanism Of Action Hydrochlorothiazide affects the renal tubular mechanisms of electrolyte reabsorption. Hydrochlorothiazide increases excretion of sodium and chloride in approximately equivalent amounts. Natriuresis causes a secondary loss of potassium
INDICATIONS KANADREX (Hydrochlorothiazide) is often used in the management of hypertension either as the sole therapeutic agent or to enhance the effect of other antihypertensive drugs in the more severe forms of hypertension. It is also used as an adjunctive therapy of edema associated with congestive heart failure, hepatic cirrhosis, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. It has also been found useful in edema due to various forms of renal dysfunction, such as the nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis, and chronic renal failure. It is sometimes used for hypercalciuria.
CONTRAINDICATIONS Anuria; hypersensitivity to this or other sulfonamide-derived drugs
Side EFFECTS : Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as: -dry mouth, thirst, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, jaundice. - feeling weak, drowsy, restless, or light-headed. - fast or uneven heartbeat. - muscle pain or weakness. - numbness or tingly feeling. - a red, blistering, peeling skin rash. Less serious side effects may include diarrhea, mild stomach pain, constipation , or blurred vision.
WARNINGS KANADREX (Hydrochlorothiazide) should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function, patients with renal impairment, and patients with gout. The patients should be carefully observed for signs of fluids and electrolyte imbalance. Correct hypokalemia before initiating therapy.Sensitivity reactions are more likely to occur in patients with a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.
DRUG INTERACTIONS : Hydrochlorothiazide may enhance the toxicity of digitalis glycosides by depleting serum-potassium concentrations. Hypokalemia may develop during concomitant use of steroids or ACTH. Lithium renal clearance is reduced by thiazides, increasing the risk of lithium toxicity. Concurrent administration of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents may reduce the diuretic, natriuretic and anti-hypertensive effects of thiazide diuretics. Absorption of hydrochlorothiazide is impaired in the presence of anionic exchange resins (Cholestyramine and colestipol). Insulin requirements in diabetic patients may be increased, decreased, or unchanged.
Pregnancy And lactations Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects, Pregnancy Category B: Studies on pregnant mice and rats provided no evidence of harm to the fetus. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Nonteratogenic Effects: Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood. There is a risk of fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions that have occurred in adults. Nursing Mothers: Thiazides are excreted in breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue Kanadrex, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Dosage And Administration ADULTS Hypertension: To Initiate Therapy: Usual dosage is 50-100 mg daily. May be given as a single dose every morning. Maintenance dose : After a week dosage may be adjusted downward to as little as 25 mg a day, or upward. Rarely patients may require up to 200 mg daily in divided doses. Combined Therapy: When necessary, other antihypertensive agents may be added cautiously. Since this drug potentiates the antihypertensive effect of other agents, such additions should be gradual. Dosages of ganglionic blockers in particular should be halved initially. Edema: To Initiate Diuresis: 25 to 200 mg daily for several days, or until dry weight is attained. Maintenance dose : 25 to 100 mg daily or intermittently depending on the patient’s response. A few refractory patients may require up to 200 mg daily. INFANTS AND CHILDREN: The total daily dosage for infants up to 2 years of age: 12.5 to 37.5 mg in 2 divided doses , for children 2 to12 years of age: 37.5 to100 mg in 2 divided doses.
OVERDOSE Symptoms of overdose include hypermotility, diuresis, lethargy, confusion, and muscle weakness. Treatment is supportive.
Storage Conditions Store below 30° C ,away from light Keep out of reach of children